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  • Dr Paul Penn

How to question your sources to optimise your studying

In this video I provide some advice on how to go about questioning your sources.

Introduction - 0:00

The four-question technique. - 00:43

How the four-question technique helps you remember more of what you study. -03:09

One thing to bear in mind when using the four-question technique. - 04:00


Dietz-Uhler, B., & Lanter, J. R. (2009). Using the four-questions technique to enhance learning. Teaching of Psychology, 36(1), 38-41.

Karpicke, J. D. (2017). Retrieval-Based Learning: A Decade of Progress. Grantee Submission.

Pressley, M., McDaniel, M. A., Turnure, J. E., Wood, E., & Ahmad, M. (1987). Generation and precision of elaboration: Effects on intentional and incidental learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13(2), 291.

Rawson, K. A., Thomas, R. C., & Jacoby, L. L. (2015). The power of examples: Illustrative examples enhance conceptual learning of declarative concepts. Educational Psychology Review, 27(3), 483-504.

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